6 Tips for success

Read our monthly 6 tips newsletters, designed to give insights around reproduction in dairy farming businesses. These handy and timely tips include anything from reminders to new discoveries.

1.Why is BCS important?

Body condition score (BCS) is a measure of a cow’s fat reserves and is a good indicator of energy balance. The fat reserves on animals are important in early lactation, buffering the peak in energy demand and milk supply against feed shortages. A rapid drop in BCS can increase the time for a cow to resume cycling again, reduce the conception rate and increase the risk of reproductive disorders and health problems like metabolic diseases.

2. What are the BCS targets?

DairyNZ has BCS targets for cows at both calving and mating. At time of calving, 2-year-old and 3-year-old cows (first- and second-calvers) have a target BCS of 5.5, while older cows have a target of 5. Between calving and mating, cows should not lose more than 1.0 BCS. This translates to a target BCS at mating of 4.0 or greater for older cows and 4.5 for 2-year-old and 3-year-old cows. In addition, DairyNZ advises no more than 15% of animals to be above the target, as well as no more than 15% being below the target.

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Based on data recorded in MINDA, we were able to look at the BCS of nearly 200,000 cows prior to mating, and how they got back in calf. Due to low numbers of cows with recorded scores between dry off and calving, we have only looked at pre-mating BCS.

3. What BCS are our cows achieving?

On average, 4-8 year-old cows are hitting their mating BCS target, with an average BCS of 4.38, with only 7% below target. The 2-year-olds are also, on average, meeting target with an average BCS of 4.51, however, 28% of them were below target. In addition, 3-year-olds are falling short of target, with an average BCS of just 4.34, with 44% of them being below target.

4.How does BCS relate to reproduction?

Cows at the recommended BCS just before mating (4.5 for 2 and 3 year olds, and 4.0 for 4-8 year olds) or half a condition score greater, have a higher 6-week in-calf rate and a lower not-in-calf rate. Thinner cows will take longer to get in-calf, meaning a later calving date next year, or they may not get in-calf at all. These results support the importance of meeting BCS targets.

5. When to condition score?

DairyNZ recommends condition scoring regularly, with emphasis on late lactation, pre-calving, pre-mating and at the end of mating. A list of certified BCS assessors and how to become a certified assessor can be found on the Dairy NZ website.

The best way to record individual condition scores is with the MINDA® app on your smart phone. Once entered into MINDA, use the Reproduction tab in MINDA® Live to monitor the BCS of your cows, and after mating look at the link between BCS and reproduction in your herd.

6. What can we do to minimise BCS loss?

One strategy that can be used now is preferential treatment, such as reduced milking frequency in early lactation. Reducing the cows’ energy requirements to better match her energy intake can help mitigate some effects of not reaching calving BCS targets. This strategy can be used for the whole herd or to target at risk cows.

Prevention is better than a cure, so setting up the cows well before calving, will mean that we aren’t trying to stop BCS loss to keep the cows in the right range, rather ensuring they don’t lose too much. Prevention strategies are better implemented at the end of the season, these strategies for managing BCS include:

  • Monitor the weights of heifers as well grown heifers tend to meet condition score targets at calving.
  • Dry off first calvers ahead of the mature cows to give them more time to reach their higher target as a 3-year old.
  • Dry cows off based on BCS and expected calving date.

For more information or help with body condition scores, contact your local Rural Professional or In-Calf Advisor.

1) Live weight targets

Ensuring heifers meet live weight targets has a big impact on their reproductive and milk production performance in their first season. One of the important milestones is coming up, with the target at 15 months (mating) being 60% of mature live weight. We often see heifers falling behind the target guideline over winter, so it is important to ensure that heifers are getting back on track before mating. Percentage of mature live weight is the key driver of puberty, so hitting the targets will give your heifers their best chance of getting in-calf.

2) When to mate your yearlings

First-calving heifers take about 10 days longer than the main herd to resume cycling after calving. Consider mating your yearlings ahead of the milking cows to give them the extra time they need, which in turn, gives them the best chance of getting in-calf and coming back into the herd as a 3-year old.

3) Should you artificially breed (AB) your yearlings?

Artificial breeding and natural mating are the two main options for breeding heifers. In general, yearling heifers represent the highest genetic merit cows in your herd and mating them to superior bulls using AB is one way of speeding up genetic gain. Check out Dairy NZ’s factsheet to work out whether yearling AB is a viable option for you. Having the right infrastructure and being able to manage heat detection adequately are key considerations to whether yearling AB can work for you.

4) Organising bulls

If naturally mating your heifers is your chosen option, make sure you organise your bulls well in advance. You want them on farm at least 3 weeks before mating starts to get them settled in.

Get your bulls health checked to ensure that they are BVD negative, have sound fertility and are not lame or have feet problems. Ensure you will have enough bull power to service your heifers. Dairy NZ recommends 1 bull per 20 yearling heifers, with at least 2 bulls in the paddock at one time. Make sure you have spares to allow replacement of bulls if needed.

Use our Bull checklist to help ensure a successful mating.

5) What bulls to choose?

Careful selection of your bulls will help to reduce the risk of injuring your heifers and difficult calvings. Picking younger and smaller bulls will reduce the risk of injuries during mating. Bull selection, both breed and individual bulls within breed, is important regardless of whether you are using AB or natural mating. Not all bulls are created equal, and differences within breed are a common occurrence. Ask your AB supplier or bull breeder about the expected calving difficulty of the individual bulls.

6) Transition cows

While for some of the country, calving doesn’t really pick up until August, most farms will have some cows milking already. Keep up the good work managing the transition of these cows into milk. Many herds are successful at getting their early calvers back in-calf, but we do see some herds struggling more than they should with in-calf rates of their later calving cows. Management of the cows in their transition period to minimise health and nutritional or body condition setbacks giving the cow the best chance of getting back in-calf.

For more information or help with yearling mating, contact your local Rural Professional or In-Calf Advisor. All the best for a successful calving period.

1) Are you ready for calves?

Take some time now to ensure you and your team are ready for the arrival of calves. For a refresher on the key points around calf rearing, check out DairyNZ’s calf care page.

Make sure your calf shed will meet calves’ shelter, bedding, and water requirements. Calf sheds need to be dry, weather proof and well ventilated, as well as being regularly disinfected.

2) Colostrum: Liquid Gold

A calf is born with a non-developed immune system, absorbing antibodies from colostrum is what kick starts it. Good colostrum management requires 3 Q’s: Quality, Quantity and Quickly

  • Colostrum from the first milking is the highest quality and should be fed to newborns.
  • Calves need 4-6 litres of colostrum (at least 10% of their body weight) in the first day. A newborn calf can only hold 1.5-2 litres in their stomach, so the target is 2 feeds within the first 12 hours.
  • Absorption of all the good antibodies is best in the first 6-12 hours of life. Calves that don’t receive enough colostrum early enough are more prone to disease and death.

3) Healthy calves make healthy cows

Attentive calf health monitoring and calf shed sanitation will help to reduce illness in your calves, which will help them to put their energy into growing rather than fighting off bugs.

Have your calf monitoring and calf shed cleaning plans handy in the shed, and ensure your staff know how to spot and treat common illnesses to help reduce the number of sick calves you have this year. Ensure you and your staff know what to record so that all calf treatment plans are carried out fully and correctly.

4) Monitor yearlings

Not to be forgotten about are your yearling heifers. This time of the year, we often see them dip below the guideline weight. While a small dip can be okay, falling more than 10% below the guideline often means they struggle to catch back up before mating. Puberty is driven by body weight, so we want our yearlings meeting targets to give them the best chance at mating. The live weight target is 60% at 15 months of age (mating start date).

Using MINDA weights is a good way of monitoring the growth of your yearlings.

5) Rising 2-year old heifers

With little time now before the R2 heifers calve, the live weight and body condition score they will calve at is pretty much set. If your heifers are going to be calving below target live weight (90%) and/or body condition score (5.5), make a plan now with how you can minimise the condition loss between calving and mating.

Strategies could include putting them on once-a-day for all or part of the time leading up to and through mating, or having them in their own herd so they don’t have to compete with older cows.

6) Keeping your records in order

Recording is the key to making informed decisions in the future, whether that be regarding herd improvement or otherwise. Make sure that you have a process in place to record during calving. The MINDA App is a great way to record as you go.

You will need to record things such as: calving date, calf fate, dam, sex of calf, calf id (tag or temporary ID) and whether there was assistance required during calving.

For more information or help with your young stock, contact your local rural professional or InCalf advisor.

1) Continued increase in detailed reproduction data

The number of spring calving and seasonal herds with a detailed Fertility Focus Report (FFR) has increased to 4455. This equates to 56% of the 8016 LIC customers that produce a seasonal calving FFR. This is up from 55% in 2019 and 52% in 2018. This trend shows that more and more farmers are recognising the importance of having detailed reproduction data so that they can make informed herd management decisions.

2) National average 6-week in-calf rate

The national average 6-week In-calf rate is sitting at 67.6%.Since 2017, this rate has improved on an annual basis. Although there has been no improvement this year, a 0.2% drop is not very significant.

National Average Repro Performance June 6 Tips 1

Anecdotally, we heard that mating started well, and this was supported by a 1% increase in the national average 3-week submission rates. However, we also heard that the second round and beyond did not go as well, and we saw that the average conception rate dropped by 0.3% this year.

The 6-week in-calf rate is affected by both submission rate and conception rate. Despite these anecdotal reports about change in mating, we still got a similar number of cows pregnant in the first 6 weeks.

3) National average not-in-calf rate

This season the national average not-in-calf rate was 16.3% from an average 10.7 week mating. The not-in-calf rate is higher than last year, but by less than 1%. The average mating length continues to shorten, with the average this year, half a day shorter than 2019 at 74.6 days.

Together these mean that despite the anecdotally poorer end of mating, we still have a similar number of cows pregnant in the same mating length as last year.

National Average Repro Performance June

4) What do the top quartile herds look like?

The top 25% of herds1 in New Zealand are achieving (on average) a 76.1% 6-week in-calf rate and a 12.6% not-in-calf rate from a 10.1 week mating period. These herds had an average 86.0% submission rate and 59.8% conception rate.

5) All AB (No Bull) herd results

All AB herds2 made up 13% of the detailed FFR herds (560 herds). The all AB herds had an average 6-week in-calf rate of 68.5%, which was 1.1% higher than the AB + natural mating bull herds. This is consistent with the results we have seen for previous seasons. The very small difference in the not-in-calf rate is also consistent with previous years.

National Average Repro Performance graphic

These results reinforce the fact that all AB is a viable mating option, but as always, we advise you to consult with your reproduction expert to see if going all AB is, indeed, a sensible option for you.

6) Top honours

After just missing out by 0.1% last year, Taranaki has reclaimed the top spot achieving a 68.8% 6-week in-calf-rate. As with every year, there is not much of a difference in the results among the different regions, with only 0.6% separating the top 4 regions! 3

Herds included in this analysis were spring calving seasonal herds that had a Detailed InCalf Fertility Focus Report. The reproduction measures analysed were generated from data and information entered by herd owners and collected by LIC and DairyNZ. Accuracy of the results reported here is subject to the accuracy of the data entered.

  1. Top quartile herds are based on ranking herds by 6-week in-calf rate and 3-week submission rate. 2. All AB herds are classed as those that did at least 9 weeks of continuous AB or where the AB mating length matched the total mating length. 3. Regions with less than 50 herds were excluded from this analysis.

For more information or help with getting set up for winter, contact your local rural professional or InCalf advisor.

Reflect on what went well this season

Did your 6-week in-calf rate or not-in-calf rate improve? Have you invested in upskilling your staff? Did you see less mastitis or use less intervention?

We find it easy to focus on the things that don’t go so well. Take time to identify and acknowledge what went well and make sure you keep these good things as part of your system so you can build on and focus on areas that present opportunities.


For those spring calving herds, May and June is often a period of downtime on the farm. Take the opportunity to take time away from the farm.

DairyNZ and Farmstrong have great information about the importance of taking time to look after yourselves.

Prepare to manage the transition period

Cows that suffer health problems around calving or in early lactation can have hindered reproductive performance. The transition period is an important time for managing cow health, as metabolic issues often arise as cows calve and start milking. Metabolic disorders can also lead to an increased risk of other diseases and infections, such as mastitis.

Talk to your vet about monitoring and supplementation to prevent metabolic diseases. For more information check out chapter 12 of the InCalf book.

Set up for calving

Make the most of this slower time to get the farm set up for the upcoming season. Prepare the calf sheds, are there repairs or improvements that need to be made? Have you sorted your calf rearer/s? Do your staff know how to recognise a cow having calving trouble?

Safeguard pregnancies

Reduce the risk of pregnancy losses by ensuring that your cows and heifers do not have access to macrocarpa, pine needles or mouldy silage. Take care to minimise the risk of nitrate poisoning, pregnant animals are more at risk of being affected.

It is worthwhile getting your vet to check any cows with suspected abortions, as it may be better to identify those earlier rather than later. Take care handling aborted cows, calves and membranes in case it is something that can be spread.

For more information about abortions, check out page 100 of the InCalf book.

Autumn mating season

For the autumn and split calving herds, mating is just around the corner. Heat detection is one of the key management areas to focus on during this time. Make a plan for identifying, managing and mating cows on heat or not cycling. If your autumn herd is naturally mated, make sure you have sufficient bull power and monitor the bulls while they are in the herd.

Check out the Dairy NZ website for more tips about heat detection and bull management.

Growth curve

The graph below shows the deviation from the MINDA® weights target (horizontal line in the graph below, diagonal line in MINDA® weights) for 2017, 2018 and 2019 (not quite complete yet) spring born heifers.

Growth graph April 2021 6 tips

This curve is representative of what we see every year both nationally and at regional level. Heifers are typically reared well to 6 month targets, and on average, meet targets at 15 months of age. The autumn and winter period represents a time in the growth curve that spring-born heifers tend to fall behind targets (10-16 months).

Don’t just weigh R1 heifers

Weighing heifers is great, but don’t stop there. Use the weight information to direct efforts and target the struggling heifers. Use the ‘manage animals’ section of MINDA® weights to identify the heifers slipping into the action group and see how far behind their ideal live weight they are.

Communicating with the grazier

We know that heifers typically fall behind over the winter period. For those with heifers (R1 & R2) away at grazing, it is worth giving your grazier a call to develop a plan to manage heifer feed intake over winter. This will assist in identifying and managing any potential feed deficit over winter. Make sure to cover quality and quantity of feed, whether extra feed will be needed and what feed needs to be supplied.

Dairy NZ has great information on managing grazing contracts.

Targets for R1 heifers

Dairy NZ live weight targets for R1 heifers are 30% of mature weight at 6 months and 60% at 15 months (first mating). Every year, at a national and regional level, we see a dip below target over the winter period. Heifers that fall more than 10% behind in the first winter (10-14 months of age) often won’t catch up to target before mating.

Remember that the age on the graph above (and on MINDA® weights) works back from mating start date (set at 15 months). Puberty is weight driven rather than age driven, so these targets are set to ensure heifers are on track to achieve puberty before mating.

Later born replacement heifers have more work to do to meet targets compared to their earlier born herd mates. For example, heifers mated in October, need to meet the ‘6 month’ target in January. An August born heifer will need to reach the 30% target in 5 months compared to a July born heifer having 6 months.

Targets for R2 heifers

The Dairy NZ live weight target for R2 heifers is 90% of mature weight by 22 months of age, which is just before first calving. The body condition score (BCS) target for these heifers is 5.5 when returning from grazing before first calving. The theory is that heifers which are meeting the 22-month live weight target should also be meeting their BCS target.

Winter crop transitioning

Many farmers and graziers will be using winter crops to feed young stock. Have a robust and efficient transition management plan in place for transition onto and off the crop, which will help avoid cow health issues and excessive weight gain. There is no ‘almost getting it right’ in this case as the consequences are often severe.

For more information on winter crop grazing check out the guide from DairyNZ. For more information about managing health issues, talk to your vet.

Reproductive success is about having more good cows in your herd. The better your reproductive performance is, the more options you have for herd improvement. These tips will focus on some end of lactation decisions, managing who to cull, and how you dry off your cows.

Consider culling late calvers

Reducing the number of late calvers will benefit your herd’s reproductive success next season. Late calving cows (calving after week 6) are more likely to be late calving again the following season, and less likely to get in-calf at all. The InCalf recommendation is to have no more than 12% of the herd calving after week 6.

Identify low performers

We can look at low performing cows by their production figures (PW and LW) or by 6-week in-calf rate. Evidence shows that, when using production indexes as a parameter, bottom quartile cows for PW or LW have poorer reproductive performance. You may also see from evaluating the pregnancy tab in MINDA LIVE repro, that your older cows aren’t getting in-calf as well as their herd mates – if you have too many of them you’ll be compromising herd performance. Culling lower performing cows will help towards improving your overall herd quality, productive and reproductive performance.

MINDA LIVE culling guide

Under reporting in MINDA LIVE you will find a culling guide. This is a customisable report where you can select animals based on criteria such as PW, age, SCC, expected calving date and pregnancy status. You can pick or unselect individual animals from the list too, then save and/or print the report. Dairy NZ has a description of the different criteria to consider culling cows on.

Body condition score (BCS)

Recording individual BCS in MINDA LIVE allows you to track individuals and see if they’re on track to reach calving target BCS. Regular body condition scoring will help you to identify at-risk cows which are not on target, and could benefit from some TLC. Cows in lower condition score may benefit from a reduced milking frequency or being dried off earlier. Alternatively, cows which are closer to their calving target could be milked for longer.

When to dry off?

Consider a staggered dry off based on BCS, expected calving pattern and age (younger cows first) so that your cows have the best opportunity to reach calving target BCS. Dry cows take approximately 2 months to gain 1 condition score. Additionally, cows generally will not put on condition 1-2 weeks after dry off or 1 month before calving. For example, a cow due in July, with a BCS more than 1 unit below target will need to be dried off this month.

MINDA LIVE dry off guide

Also under reporting in MINDA LIVE you will find a dry off guide. This customisable report functions in the same way as the culling guide. You can select animals that would benefit from an earlier dry off such as cows due to calve early or cows in low BCS. In general, rising 3 year olds are at higher risk as they have an extra 0.5 BCS to gain before calving compared to their older counterparts.

For more information or help with drying-off and culling strategies, contact your local rural professional or InCalf advisor.

With pregnancy testing for spring mating happening now, here are some points to think about when you get the results back.

Having early aged pregnancy test information and accurate records will give you an actual view of how mating went.

Overall, how did it go?

Producing a Fertility Focus Report (through MINDA LIVE Reports) will give you a general overview of how mating went. The key points for overall herd performance are the 6 week in-calf rate and the not-in-calf rate.

Your not-in-calf rate may be higher than you were expecting based on the number of empty cows from pregnancy testing. Read our explanation here as to why this difference, at times, exists.

For a more in-depth look into how mating went, check out the following graphs in the pregnancy tab in MINDA LIVE:

How did calving impact in-calf rates?

Cows calving in the first 6 weeks should have the best reproductive performance. Based on the National Repro Fertility Study [1] and LIC datasets [2], a suggested rule of thumb is that medium calvers (calving in week 4 – 6) should be no more than 8% behind early calvers. We generally see poorer reproductive performance from the later calving cows, the target calving patterns from the fertility focus report mean that 12% or less of your herd should be calving after week 6.

How did each age group perform?

As a rule of thumb, younger cows are expected to perform better than older cows. If your 2 or 3-year-old cows do not have a higher 6 week in-calf rate than the older cows, you may need to look into the management of your younger stock. If your 2-year-olds are behind, without changing the way they are managed, they will often be behind as a 3-year-old too.

The effect of body condition score

Body condition scoring cows individually around calving and/or mating will let you see the value of hitting targets. Having more individual body condition score records at calving and mating will show you best how body condition score impacts reproductive performance.

Did the sick cows have an effect?

Recording all health events such as mastitis, lameness or endometritis will give you an insight into the impact of cow health on reproduction. Take a look at what proportion of your herd are affected by health problems. DairyNZ provides recommended thresholds for seeking advice from your vet. For example: seek help if more than 5% of the herd are effected by lameness between calving and week 6 of mating.

Finally, think forward to the next mating

Based on what you see looking at your 2020 mating, are there areas you could focus on for 2021 mating to improve your reproductive performance?

  • Are there groups of cows that would benefit from a bit of TLC between calving and mating?
  • Could you utilise OAD or flexible milking frequencies to improve body condition or manage cow health?
  • Can you put a precautionary measure in place to manage cow health?

For more information about producing or interpreting your fertility focus report checkout the Fertility Focus Report user guide or contact your local InCalf advisor.

Watch the boys

Keep an eye on the bulls running with your cows. Watch out for signs of lameness, and whether they are serving correctly. Remember, even if you have less than 30 non-pregnant cows left, always have at least two bulls running with the herd at all times. Switch out any bulls which are not doing their job correctly.

The Dairy NZ bull management page has more information on what to watch out for.

Wrapping up mating with SGL Dairy®

Generally, the longer the mating period, the longer the calving period is next year. Using short gestation length dairy AB at the end of mating can give you the option to decrease the calving spread next year while not compromising your mating length and, subsequently, not-in-calf rate. It can also be a way to extend the mating period without extending the calving period.

For more information on LIC SGL Dairy® semen, contact your LIC rep.

Managing the drop in pasture quality

As summer hits, across the country we see a change in the pasture quality. As it gets drier, the pasture increases in dry matter, loses digestibility and drops in energy.

Something we see when looking at a herd’s reproduction, is that there is often a drop in the daily in-calf rate that matches the drop in pasture quality on the farm, which inevitably translates into a drop in the milk production.

Ensuring your cows are getting enough energy will help avoid a drop in production and in-calf rates. The Dairy NZ facts and figures book has handy calculators to work out the energy requirement of your cows (Chapter 4, page 47).

Dairy NZ has a summer management guide and some handy tips for how to manage different scenarios over summer.

Body condition score

Formulate a plan to maintain body condition score (BCS) over summer. Working towards achieving pre-calving BCS targets starts now. It’s more efficient to maintain condition score than losing condition over summer and trying to gain it back later. Even with the best feeding, cows rarely gain more than 0.5 BCS per month.

Regular scoring will allow you to act quickly if BCS is starting to drop. The aim is to keep at least 85% of the herd above BCS 4.0 throughout summer.

Dairy NZ has great resources including the InCalf book (page 73-83) and an app to make this important job easier.

Planning for late lactation

If you are in an area that can be particularly dry in summer and autumn, consider how you will manage feed to maintain cow BCS over the next few months. Consider how low BCS cows will reach target condition score at calving, drying off these cows early may help them gain enough condition before calving.

Your farm system will dictate what options are open to you, such as once-a-day milking, selective culling and drying-off selected cows early (i.e. low BCS).

Make informed culling decisions

One option to manage feed over summer is to prioritise feed towards cows you are keeping for next season.

Use herd testing and expected calving dates from early aged pregnancy test information to identify cows you don’t plan on keeping. Removing lower producing and later calving cows will free up feed for the rest of your herd.

Dairy NZ has a list of factors to consider when selecting cows to cull from the herd.

For more information or help with summer management, contact your local rural professional.

The Repro team are having a break over Christmas, so there will be no 6 Tips in January. Happy holidays from the Repro team!

  1. Early-aged PD – book your dates

An early aged pregnancy test will ensure you get actual conception dates as well as a detailed DairyNZ Fertility Focus Report. This kind of information can help you and your rural professionals’ spot where there may be opportunities to improve performance for next season. For long mating periods, this can sometimes mean booking two tests.

Use our when to scan calculator to figure out when you should be getting scans done.

2. Managing the end of AB

As mating progresses, heat detection becomes more challenging. The number of sexually active cows’ decreases and fatigue could be setting in. Missing heats will negatively impact your reproductive results and next year’s production, so it is vital that you have a system in place to manage this.

Either have someone else help with heat detection, or lessen the work load of the staff member doing the heat detection. A second aid can also help you spot cows that are not showing as strong signs of heat, particularly when the number of cows coming on heat and riding is less.

3. Bull management

As the end of AB approaches, many farmers will be putting bulls in charge of the next phase of mating. To help you get the best performance from the bulls, make sure your bull management is top notch.

  • Do you have enough bull power? The DairyNZ recommendation is 1 bull per 30 non-pregnant cows in the herd at any one time.
  • Pay attention to the job that the bulls are doing. If any are not serving correctly or become lame, replace him with a more capable bull.

Check out DairyNZ’s Bull Management page and successful bull mating period tips for more information.

4. Wean calves to live weight

Wean calves on individual live weight, rather than age. Using scales is the most accurate way to measure weight. Weaning targets (individual not herd average) should be based on their expected mature live weight. This is approximately 95-100kg for Friesian calves, 85-90kg for crossbreds and 75-80kg for Jerseys.

For more information, Dairy NZ has a factsheet about weaning decisions and another about managing younger and lighter calves before weaning.

5. Regularly weigh your young stock to monitor their growth

After weaning right up until first calving, weigh your young heifers regularly (every 1 – 3 months) to monitor how they are growing. Your heifer calves represent the future of your herd, and keeping your replacements growing well is essential for their future performance.

Entering the weights into MINDA, and checking the MINDA® Live weight graphs will allow you to monitor whether your heifers are meeting their individual targets. The earlier you can spot struggling heifers and manage them to avoid problems, the better.

6. Holiday rosters

Finally, after a busy calving and mating period, we all need a break. Looking after yourself is just as important to your business as everything else.

Take the opportunity to start discussing holiday rosters so that everyone knows what’s happening when and so no one is left short-handed.

For more information, contact your local rural professional.

1) Managing cows during AB

If you aren’t too sure if a cow is on heat or not, draft her out and observe her with the other cows on heat. It will become clearer whether she is on heat (if she is being ridden by other cows), or not (if she isolates from the other cows) – in which case refresh her heat detection aid/s and return her to the paddock.

It is also important to return the cows which have been drafted out back to the paddock after mating. It is these cows who will help identify the cows coming into heat ready to be mated tomorrow!

2) Submission rates

The 3-week submission rate is a key driver of the 6-week in-calf rate. Three weeks is long enough for most cows to have cycled once. Therefore, the target 3-week submission rate is 90% - this equals about 4% of cows submitted per day.

Check your submission rate on the daily graph in MINDA® Live (reproduction section, mating tab) to see if you’re on track. You should be hitting about 30% submission rate at the end of the first week of mating.

If you’re not on track, you are still early enough into the mating period to make changes. Taking this opportunity to ensure heat detection is optimal is paramount. If that is not where the problem lies, seeking help to identify what else is affecting performance is recommended.

Daily submission rates

3) Short returns

The majority of cows will have an oestrous cycle every 18-24 days (there is a small chance of a true heat outside this period). Keeping an eye on the number of cows that have returned to heat between day 1 and 17 is an indicator of the accuracy of heat detection.

To help you with this, take note of the Early Indicator – Repeat Matings graph on MINDA® Live during the first 17 days of mating. You want to keep this below 10%, but don’t panic if you get into double figures - use it as a chance to review your heat detection practices.

Early indicator, repeat matings

4) Heat detection aids

Heat detection aids are great at assisting with heat detection throughout the AB period - they can help with making sure the cow is really on heat.

There are many types of aid you can use including tail paint and heat mount detectors. These aids are far more helpful when maintained and read correctly.

Heat detection app and tail paint

Photos: Heat mount detector, LIC (left); Tail paint, Dairy NZ (right)

Maintaining your heat detection aids throughout mating, as recommended by the manufacturers, is especially important as the mating progresses. Make sure your staff are up to scratch detecting heat and consider using a second aid to help with lengthy mating periods as the number of cows returning to heat lessens.

For more tips on heat detection aids check out page 111 in the InCalf Book (Chapter 13). All of the aids have pros and cons, so it’s a matter of working out what suits your farm routine, budget, and goals.

5) Nutrition – milk dockets and body condition score

Nutrition plays a huge part in reproductive success. Watch your milk dockets for a drop in milksolids production (0.007-0.01 kg/cow/day) over a period of 2-4 days. This may indicate that pasture quality is declining, and cows are getting less energy.

Regularly checking the body condition score of your cows will also give an indication of whether they are getting enough energy. Cows shouldn’t be dropping more than 1 condition score between calving and mating. A drop of more than 1 condition score can negatively affect the submission rate and conception rate of your herd. The Dairy NZ condition score targets are 4.5 for 2- and 3-year old cows, and 4 for cows older than 4-years old.

Decreasing the energy demand and/or increasing energy supply may be beneficial to manage a decline in nutrition around the mating period. Ways to achieve this may include once-a-day milking, supplementary feed, adjust paddock rotation to manage pasture covers.

For more information check out the InCalf Book (Chapter 11).

6) Bull management

For many farms there will be bulls already on the property, whether they are being used over heifers, over cows after AB, or both. Making sure you have enough bull power to service your cows is key to reproductive success.

Dairy NZ guidelines suggest a ratio of 1 bull to 20 heifers, and 1 bull to 30 non-pregnant cows. With additional bulls on hand in order to rotate bulls in and out of the active team, and particularly to cover injury and fatigue of active bulls.

If you are synchronising your heifers you may need a larger bull team to cover more heifers coming into heat over a shorter period. Similarly, if synchronising your cows and the cows are due back on heat within the natural mating period, you may also need more bull power for that period.

For more information on bull management, check out the InCalf Book (Chapter 15).

Bull image

For more information or help with your heat detection, contact your local rural professional or InCalf advisor.

Heat detection plan

Prior to mating starting, make a plan for heat detection. Communicate with your team so everyone knows who does what, and when. Include procedures for:

  1. Identifying which cows are on heat (paddock checks, heat detection aids)
  2. Managing cows on heat (recording pre-mating heats and drafting for mating)
  3. Which of the drafted cows you’ll mate
  4. Actions taken for cows not cycling

The InCalf book has more detail around heat detection (Chapter 13).

Refreshing heat detection skills

Good heat detection can have a major impact on the overall herd’s reproductive performance. Common mistakes made when detecting heat include missing heats and inventing heats. Minimising missed heats can result in a better calving spread the following year and more days in milk. Minimising invented heats may mean a lower cost per pregnancy and avoid the risk of disturbing a pregnancy.

Review your heat detection skills on your farm - does everyone know exactly what to look for?

Dairy NZ has a handy heat detection skills checklist on their website.

Pre-mating heats

Starting heat detection early can give you an idea of which cows are cycling before the mating start date and can also be an early indicator of submission rate. Target 85% of cows cycling before the start of mating. It takes at least three weeks to identify cows not cycling prior to mating - so get onto this early.

Read more about the benefits of identifying pre-mating heats on the Dairy NZ website.

Identifying at-risk cows

Risk factors for cows becoming non-cyclers include:

  • Later calving cows
  • First-calving cows (Heifers) which were below target weight at calving
  • Younger cows
  • Cows in low body condition score at calving or those which have lost significant body condition after calving (more than 1 condition score)
  • Cows which had an assisted calving, twins or uterine infections

If recorded in MINDA, these cows will appear in the ‘at-risk’ tab in the reproduction section.

Read more about identifying at-risk cows here, and in your InCalf book (page 147).

Managing at-risk cows

The earlier you identify your at-risk cows, the more time you’ll have to decide what to do with them. If you leave it too close to mating you’ll have no other option but hormonal treatment.

One option to consider is to run the at-risk cows separately to the main mob. Separating the at-risk cows from the main mob gives the option to implement preferential feeding or once-a-day milking, which may give cows a greater chance of cycling before mating.

Read more about managing at-risk cows and non-cyclers on our website. If you have a high proportion of at-risk cows, talk to your vet/rural professional about a management plan.

Treating the non-cycling cows

When it comes to non-cyclers you need to have an answer to these three questions:

  1. Are you going to treat/preferentially manage your non-cyclers?
  2. If you are, when and how are you going to treat them?
  • Earlier treatment will likely have a greater impact on the 6-week in-calf rate and not-in-calf rate. Treatments options include hormonal intervention, supplementary feeding and once-a-day milking.
  1. Which cows are you going to treat?
  • You don’t need to treat all cows in the non-cycler group. You need to ask yourself - is it worth treating the old cows, late calving cows or poor producers?

If you are going to treat, talk to your vet/rural professional well in advance to nail down your plans.

Finally, just a note with bulls arriving on your farm, make sure you accept your NAIT movements for any arriving animals. Best wishes from the Repro Team for the upcoming mating period.

For more information or help with your heat detection, contact your local rural professional or InCalf advisor.

Ensure yearling heifers meet liveweight targets

Studies show that heifers which meet liveweight targets at mating get in-calf faster, produce more, and are more likely to get in-calf early in the following season. Regularly weigh and actively manage those that need extra attention to help ensure your yearlings will be at target weight for mating.

Consider mating yearlings ahead of the herd

First calvers take, on average, 10 days longer to resume cycling after calving than a mature cow does.  To help give the first calvers the extra time they need to resume cycling ahead of mating, consider mating your yearlings 7-10 days ahead of the herd.

AB on yearlings?

If you haven’t already, you need to decide ASAP whether you will be doing any AB on your yearlings.  Your yearlings are generally the highest genetic merit animals in your herd, so mating them to AB speeds up your rate of genetic gain.  Check out DairyNZ’s Heifer mating page to see if doing AB on your yearlings is right for you.  If you are going to do AB on your yearlings, ensure you have selected appropriate sires, ensure everyone involved (e.g. AB technician/company, vet, farm staff etc.) is aware that yearlings will be AB’d (and when), and that you have the appropriate facilities available to do the AB in.

Natural mating bulls – numbers & selection

You’ll need one yearling bull per 20 yearling heifers, and a couple of spares in case of injuries or lameness.  If you intend to synchronise heifers for AB, the demand on bull power increases significantly over a short period of time when they return to heat. You’ll need to either double your bull power or reintroduce AB for a short period of time to cover the returns.  Make sure bulls you select are well grown, sound, fully vaccinated, and are BVD etc. free.  Also keep in mind size - smaller, younger bulls are less likely to injure your girls as they mount.  For more info on bull selection, check out our bull buying and leasing checklist.

Organise natural mating bulls early

Get the bulls on farm well before they are due in the paddock – at least 2 months before mating is due to start.  This gives them time to get used to you, your farm, and to establish their hierarchies before they’re out with your heifers.  Watch for overly dominant or aggressive bulls, as they may be problematic and cause injuries to each other, you, or your heifers. If there are aggressive bulls, send them back or to the works.  If you mate your yearling heifers ahead of the herd, remember that your bulls will need to arrive on farm even earlier.

Once the bulls are on farm

Once the bulls have arrived, there are 3 key things you need to do:

  • Check for any injuries that may have happened during transport
  • If there are any, address them immediately or request a replacement bull
  • Quarantine them for 10 days and observe for any signs disease or walking defects
  • Trim hooves if necessary.

For more information or help with your yearling mating, contact your local rural professional or InCalf advisor.

Keep monitoring and managing yearlings and R2’s

This is the time of year that we usually see heifer weights dip below the MINDA Weights guideline. This generally isn’t a problem as long as you keep the girls’ weights to within 10% of the guideline.  However, Steve Forsman, our resident Heifer guru, has recently seen several people caught out by low heifer weights due to not regularly weighing and monitoring their heifers. Regularly weigh and actively manage those that need extra attention to avoid a nasty surprise with your heifer weights.

Rising 2 year olds

The liveweight and BCS that your R2’s/first calvers will calve at is pretty much set by now.  If you know your R2’s are going to calve at sub-optimal liveweight and/or BCS, make a plan now for how you are going to give these girls the best chance at getting back in-calf early at mating time.  This could include putting them on once-a-day for all or part of the time leading up to and through mating, or having them in their own herd so they don’t have to compete with older cows.  Talk to your rural adviser to nail down your plan.

Are you ready for calves?

Take some time now to ensure you and your team are ready for the arrival of calves, especially if you have some added beef crosses to keep as well and for longer than usual.  For a refresher on the key points around calf rearing, check out DairyNZ’s calf care page.  Also, check that you have established procedures for calf collection, recording, feeding, handling sick calves, and euthanasia.  Making sure that everyone knows what they need to do and when will help to avoid poor decision making when you’re all feeling knackered.

Is your calf shed ready?

Without the presence of the mother and with low antibodies, the calf sheds need to be sheltered from extreme weather conditions as well as dry, disinfected and well ventilated to give calves the best start possible.  Make sure your calf shed will meet calves’ shelter, bedding, and water requirements.  In addition, check whether you have got enough tags, feeders, teats, iodine, cleaning products, bedding, water troughs, meal troughs and hay.

Colostrum: the liquid white-gold of calf success

Calves that don’t receive enough quality colostrum within the first 6-12 hours of life are more susceptible to disease and death, along with having lower weight gains, putting your girls on the back-foot right from the start.  Calves need 4-6 litres of colostrum in the first 12 hours, and first day colostrum is essential.  Make sure your farm has a plan that ensures every calf will get all the quality colostrum she needs.

Healthy calves become healthy cows

Mortality rates can soar quickly in unsuitable sheds, which makes keeping on top of calf shed sanitation critical. Talk to your veterinarian about the best products to use.  In addition, sick calves generally don’t grow as well as healthy calves.  Have your calf health monitoring plan handy in the shed and ensure your staff know how to spot and treat common illnesses to help reduce the number of sick calves you have this year.  Also, ensure you and your staff know what to record so that that all calf treatment plans are carried out fully and correctly.

For more information or help with your young stock, contact your local rural professional.

Continued increase in detailed reproduction data

The number of herds with a detailed Fertility Focus Report has increased to 4430 (55%) out of the 8092 LIC customers that produce a seasonal calving Fertility Focus Report. This is up from 52% in 2018 and 48% in 2017.  This trend shows that more and more farmers are recognising the importance of having detailed reproduction data so that they can make informed herd management decisions.

National average 6-week in-calf rate

Good news!  We have hit our highest ever national average 6-week in-calf rate - 68%.  The national average has been climbing for the last 3 seasons, a fantastic turnaround from the previous 3 seasons.

National average 6-week in-calf rate

National average not-in-calf rate

More good news!  This season the national average not-in-calf rate was just 15.6% for a 10.7 week mating.  We haven’t had a not-in-calf rate this low since 2014!  But even better, we achieved this result with a shorter mating length (2014 = 78 days, 2019 = 75 days).

National average not-in-calf rate

Improving results means more money

Comparing this season’s results with results from Spring 2016, the average herd reported (537 cow farm) is now pulling in nearly $11,000* more as a result of the improved reproduction results.

All AB (No Bull) herd results

Around 10% of herds (464 herds) were All AB for the 2019 spring mating.  The All AB herds had an average 6-week in-calf rate of 69.3%, 1.6% higher than AB + natural mating bull herds.  This is consistent with the results we have seen for previous seasons.  Also consistent is the 0.9% higher not-in-calf rates for the All AB herds.  These results reinforce the fact that doing All AB is a viable mating option, but as always, we advise you to consult with your reproduction expert to see if going All AB is, indeed, a sensible option for you.

All AB results 2019

Top honours

As is the case each season, there isn’t much difference in the results between the regions.  This year, the region with the highest average 6-week in-calf rate is Waikato!**  Waikato beat out last year’s winner, Taranaki, by 0.1% with an average 6-week in-calf rate of 69.2%.

*This figure was calculated using the DairyNZ InCalf gap calculator. 6-week in-calf rate gap: 537 cows x $4 x 2% increase in 6-week in-calf rate = $4,296.  Not-in-calf rate gap: 537 cows x $10 x 1.2% decrease in not-in-calf rate = $6,444.  Total combined increase in profit: $4,296 + $4,296 = $10,740.

**Regions with less than 50 herds were excluded from this analysis.

Communicate with your herd’s winter grazier

Finding out what the situation is at your grazier’s property is a worthwhile reason for a phone call. Weather has played havoc in many parts of the country, so having a clear understanding on whether extra feed needs to be arranged before cows leave your farm is essential. It’s also important to have clear communication on arrival dates for mobs so there are no surprises for you or your grazier.

Have a transition management plan

Many graziers will be using crop to feed your cows. Have a robust and efficient transition management plan in place, for transition onto and off the crop, to help avoid cow health issues.  There is no ‘almost getting it right’ in this case as the consequences are often severe.  For more information on crop transition management check out these dairy NZ resources on fodder beet and brassicas.

Fodder beet research

In recent years some famers have become concerned about the potential health effects on their cows grazing on fodder beet.  Recent research by DairyNZ into fodder beet has identified that fodder beet should not make up more than 30% of lactating cows’ diet and 60% for non-lactating cows.  For more information, see DairyNZ’s article on fodder beet.

R1’s and R2’s

It’s also worthwhile giving your young stock grazier a call.  Your heifers will be heading into winter soon, and historically winter is a time where heifers fall behind target.  A timely discussion about the quantity and quality of heifer feed intake, backed up by weight data, will assist in identifying the size of any potential winter feed deficit.  If it looks like extra feed will be needed, make sure you nail down who will be supplying the extra feed and what type of feed needs to be supplied.

Don't just weigh your heifers

Weighing heifers doesn’t make them heavier, but using their weight information can help to direct your efforts. Use ‘Manage animals’ in MINDA® weights to identify animals slipping into the “Action” group. Click on the “Action” group to view their birth ID and how far behind ideal liveweight they are.

Spread your knowledge

There is a large amount of valuable knowledge and information stored away in experienced farmers minds - consider sharing your knowledge in some training sessions for any junior staff before the well-deserved breaks begin. Ask them what they’d like to learn and do targeted training given time is precious.

Time to review

If you’ve got early aged pregnancy test results for the whole herd, now’s the time to head to the Reproduction section on MINDA Live to look over your herds results.  There’s 3 things you are looking for:

  • Trends over time – have your results improved or dropped over the last few seasons?
  • Periods of time that went well/not well – is there a period of time that your in-calf rate jumps up or slows down?  What was happening on farm at that point in time?
  • Groups of cows going well/not well – is there a group of cows that did not perform as well as expected?  E.g. first calvers 6-week in-calf rate is lower than the 4-8 year olds.

Assessing these 3 will help you identify what’s going well, better or worse or the same as last season and which of the 8 Key Management areas you need to focus on to lift your herds reproductive performance.

Protect next seasons success

Protect next seasons mating success by starting to work towards calving body condition score (BCS) targets now (BCS 5.5 for 2 & 3 year olds, 5 for mature cows).  Cows at different body conditions require different management.  After you’ve scored the cows, draft out a lighter mob so you can cater specifically to their needs and ensure cows are getting the treatment they need to reach target.  This may include once-a-day milking or drying-off.

Staggered drying-off

Dry off cows in groups based on BCS, calving date, and age (younger cows first).  It takes dry cows approximately 2 months to gain 1 condition score, and cows generally don’t gain condition for 1-2 weeks after drying-off or in the last month before calving.  This means that cows that are due to calve in early July that need to gain more than 1 BCS need to be dried of right now.  You may also wish to selectively dry off some high somatic cell count cows earlier to protect your bulk milk somatic cell count towards the end of the season as milk volumes drop.  Check out DairyNZ’s BCS strategies page for more information staggered drying-off.

Drying-off guide

The drying off guide on MINDA Live will help you to get a list of cows to dry-off (Reporting tab -> End of Season box -> Drying off guide).  The report gets you to choose your dry-off criteria, then it gives you a list of cows that meet those criteria.  You also choose how important each criteria is so that the dry-off guide can put those who meet your most important criteria at the top of the list.  For example, if your most important criteria is drying off your young cows that will calve early, an R3 early calver will be higher on the list than a 5 year old early calver.

Cull cows

For many regions it’s very dry and feed is in very short supply and it is important to not compromise on the APC targets for winter.  Culling cows that won’t be on farm next year (empty or other culls) is an effective way to help manage feed demand on farm.  Culling low producing and/or high somatic cell count cows will help divert feed into the cows that are producing milk more efficiently for you.

Culling guide

The Culling guide on MINDA Live will help you to get a list of cows to cull (Reporting tab -> End of Season box -> Culling guide).  Like the Drying off guide, this report gets you to choose your culling criteria and the importance of each criteria, and will provide you with a list of potential cows to cull.

What went well this season?

Things don’t always go to plan on-farm, but take some time with your team to find a few gems from this season. Maybe the herd has a higher 6-week in-calf rate this season - early indications from the national results are that results are slightly better this year (hooray!).  Maybe you had fewer mastitis problems this year.  Or maybe the tractor and fence have not had as many close encounters this year.  Whatever the successes, celebrate them to help everyone head into next season in a positive mind-set.

Ideas for next season

Throughout the season you will have come across things that you’d like to do differently next season.  Write them down and work with your team to make a plan of how you will tackle the situation differently next season.  Working on plans together helps keep everyone in the loop and take ownership of executing the plan.

New staff and staff training

The dry period is a good time to welcome new staff and get them familiar with the way your farm runs.  It’s also a good time to complete some staff training.  Having everyone on the same page and lifting staff skill levels ahead of calving may help to prevent mistakes during calving that could impact on herd reproduction, e.g. being unable to correctly identify, treat/manage and record sick cows.

Calving planning

Plan the spring transition period now as it is the riskiest time of year for cows when most metabolic and infectious diseases occur.  Well-transitioned cows have fewer uterine infections, reduced chance and severity of mastitis, and increased milk production through better health.

Safeguard pregnancies

Reduce the risk of abortions by ensuring your cows and first calvers don’t have access to macrocarpa, pine needles, or mouldy silage, as all can cause abortions.  In addition, excessive nitrates in feed can kill both cow and calf.  Avoid abortions and cow deaths by talking to your vet about strategies to safeguard cows and pregnancies.

Farming during COVID-19

The DairyNZ website has a Coronavirus page with lots of information and resources to help you and your team farm safely through this challenging time.

Keep your heifers on track for this period

It is good practice to weigh your heifers every 4 to 8 weeks. Through summer it is critical to follow this guide as this is a risk period for R1’s and R2’s falling behind their weight targets.  The more often you weigh them, the better placed you are to make proactive decisions to mitigate risks and minimise the damage. MINDA Weights can help you track the group and identify individuals that are at risk of, or already are falling behind.

Supplementary feed for young stock

Whether you graze your heifers at home or they are out with a grazier, you need to plan for the times when the feed starts to run short by asking yourself some important questions:

  • What supplements will you have available for your heifers?
  • How are you or your grazier going to feed them these supplements? 
  • Will you or your grazier decide when supplementary feed will be fed out?

Once you have made a plan, make sure you communicate it to everyone involved to ensure it is carried out.

Scrutinize your calves

You may be in the beneficial position where you have more calves/R1’s than you need.  Carefully consider - do you want, or need, to keep all of them?  For your tail-enders, are you better to cut your losses on them now and put the feed and other resources into your better calves?

Heifer animal health plan

Animal health plans need to be specific to the farm where the heifers are grazing as disease exposure, parasite presence, mineral deficiencies and bio-security risk vary on each farm.  Monitor relevant eczema levels if your heifers aren’t local and have a plan in place to prevent eczema.  Also consider and plan any oral or pour on drenches needed to keep animals in the best possible condition.  Talk to your vet to help ensure your heifer animal health plan checks all the right boxes.

Maintaining herd Body Condition Scoring (BCS)

Stay on top of your herd’s BCS throughout summer to help get them to their calving BCS easier in autumn.  Check out the DairyNZ Summer Strategies page and our How to maintain BCS over summer article for tips on keeping your herd’s BCS on track.

Feeling the heat

Throughout the country, cows will be experiencing varying levels of heat stress this summer.  When the temperature is more than 21ºC and relative humidity is more than 70%, Friesian’s and crossbreeds begin to reduce their feed intake, and milk production is reduced*. Jerseys are more tolerant of heat, with production losses insignificant until 25ºC*.  Sustained periods of reduced feed intake could lead to BCS loss, so check out DairyNZ’s heat stress page for tips on how to reduce your herd’s heat stress.


*J. R. Bryant , N. López‐Villalobos , J. E. Pryce , C. W. Holmes & D. L. Johnson. (2007). Quantifying the effect of thermal environment on production traits in three breeds of dairy cattle in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 50, 327-338. doi.org/10.1080/00288230709510301

Herd nutrition through to the end of mating

It is common to see in-calf rates drop off after week 6 of mating.  This tends to coincide with a drop in feed availability and/or a drop in feed quality.  Because cows that are experiencing a feed restriction tend to be less likely to display heat behaviours when they’re in heat*, suboptimal herd nutrition will make it harder for you or your bulls to find the cows that are in heat.  

Pages 88 and 89 of the InCalf book (DairyNZ Ltd, 2017) have tips on monitoring your herd’s nutrition, and DairyNZ’s summer management page has information on managing feed through summer.

Book your scanning dates

To get an accurate picture of how mating has gone this year, you need at least 80% of your herd to have an early aged pregnancy test result.  

To get early aged pregnancy test results, cows must be scanned between 35 and 122 days of pregnancy.  

You can use our when to scan calculator to see when you will need to scan to get early aged results for your cows.  

Book in your pregnancy testing now to ensure you get the scanning date you need to get early aged results.

Hitting BCS targets

To help your cows get in-calf early next mating, they need to reach their target calving BCS – helping them hit this target starts this summer.  

Even with exceptional feeding, dry cows rarely gain more than 0.5 BCS units in a month, so it’s important to maintain BCS through summer so that autumn’s job of getting your cows to calving BCS target doesn’t become impossible.  

Your farm system will dictate what options are open to you, such as once-a-day milking and drying-off selected cows early.

Monitor and manage BCS

Monthly body condition scoring will allow you to keep tabs on BCS.  Regular scoring will allow you to actively manage BCS throughout summer.  

In terms of farm system efficiency, maintaining condition is more efficient than losing it and regaining it later.  

The aim is to keep 85% of the herd above BCS 4.0 throughout summer.  Using a BCS-accredited professional will help you to maintain objectivity.

Remove culls

Empty cows do not milk better than pregnant cows - research** with twin cows in New Zealand shows that empty cows did not milk better than their pregnant twin until 250 days of lactation, and the differences were small. 

To help ensure your herd continues to get the feed it needs to maintain BCS through summer, remove your cull cows from your farm so that you can put your feed in to the cows you are going to keep.

Heifer update

Over the last few years we’ve made great gains in getting our heifers to target liveweight at 3 and 15 months.  

The graph below shows the improvement in the quality of heifers being handed over for rearing at three months of age – they are, on average, 3% above the MINDA-Weights guideline for this age.  

Heifer live weights

We are now also getting our 15 month old heifers, on average, to 1% above target. 

Unfortunately we are falling short of the mark after the heifers become pregnant at 15 months old, as they are entering the herd as R2’s/first calvers 4% below target (on average).  

This means that they are getting in-calf fast at 15 months old, which leads them having a tight calving pattern as first calvers, but they’re not getting back in-calf as fast or milking as well as expected once in the milking herd.

We often see heifers starting to fall behind weight targets in summer, so regularly weighing your heifers through this period will help you or your grazier to act quickly if liveweights drop below target.  Dairy NZ has more detailed information on nutritional requirements of heifers.

Reduce heat detection fatigue

Doing heat detection over a long period of time is a challenge for anyone.  But missing heats will impact this year’s reproduction results, next year’s milk production and the ability of your herd to get back in-calf next year.  

To help reduce the risk of heat detection fatigue:

  • Share the load – either have someone else help with the heat detection duties, or lighten the heat detector’s load so they are able to put a renewed focus on the task at hand
  • Consider putting on a second heat detection aid part way through mating.  Another aid may help to pick up cows that are not showing heat well and help maintain good rates of detection.
  • If there’s a team of staff sharing the heat detection duties, ensure that communication is still working well between the team and that procedures (such as who records what and where) are still being followed.

Bull management risk assessment

To help get the most out of your natural mating period, make sure that your bull management is top notch. 

InCalf’s Bull Management Tool has a quick risk assessment you can do to see if the way you’re managing your bulls is potentially impacting your herd’s reproductive performance.  

DairyNZ’s Bull Management page has more information on successfully managing your bulls.

Monitor bull body condition score (BCS)

Bulls need to start the mating season with a BCS of 4.5–5.5 and be fed appropriately to maintain this. 

Bulls that are below or above this BCS commonly have lower fertility (DairyNZ, n.d.).  Monitor and pro-actively manage your bulls’ BCS to help maintain their fertility.

Manage herd nutrition during natural mating period

We often see a drop in in-calf rates during the natural mating period.  Bull numbers and/or management can be a part of the reason for this, but another factor, often underestimated, is herd nutrition. 

Cows that are experiencing a feed restriction tend to be less likely to show when they are in heat (Burke et al., 2010).  This restriction could either be a lack of feed availability, or a drop in the quality/ metabolisable energy of the feed being offered, or a combination of both.

Whilst bulls have more tools than us for detecting when a cow is in heat, cows that are showing only weak signs, or no signs of heat will make his job harder, if not impossible.  

Help your bulls find who’s in heat by ensuring your herd’s nutrition stays on track the whole way through mating.  Check out pages 88 and 89 of the InCalf book for tips to do this (DairyNZ Ltd, 2017).

Mating length decisions

Nationally mating length has been decreasing over the last few seasons.  Compared to 2012, the average mating length has been shortened by 10 days to be just under 11 weeks long.  

There are many valid reasons for changing mating length, but if you’re thinking of shortening your herd’s mating length, keep in mind the impact that change will have on your not-in-calf rate/how many empties you’ll have.  

Table 1 in the InCalf Length of Mating Period Tool shows that shortening your mating length by 1 week can increase your not-in-calf rate by 1% to 4%.

If a higher not-in-calf rate is not an option for you, but you still want to reduce your herd calving length, an option is to use short gestation length (SGL) AB sires at the end of mating.  

Alternatively, some farmers are using SGL to extend their mating length to reduce their not-in-calf rate whilst still maintaining the same herd calving length.

Monitor heifer mating

As many heifers are not on farm for their 15 month old mating, it may be easy for it to be “out of sight, out of mind”.  These girls are generally your best genetics and the future of your herd, so making sure they get in-calf and enter your herd is critical.  

Keep in touch with whoever is managing your heifers’ mating throughout mating.  Regular communication will allow you to be proactive if things are not going well, and help ensure they follow best practice to help your heifers get in-calf well.  Many of the tips above also apply to heifer mating management.

Monitor milk dockets

Monitoring milk dockets is a good way to keep an eye on your herd’s nutritional status during mating as energy status can impact a cow’s ability to show signs of heat and get in calf (Burke et al., 2010). Keep an eye on milk solid yield and milk composition (DairyNZ Ltd, 2017).

If milk solid yield drops by more than 0.07 - 0.1 kgMS/cow/day over 2-4 days (be sure to account for differences in cow numbers, milking times and calf milk):

  • Pasture quality may have declined
  • Consider increasing energy intake through increasing supplementary feeding or pasture allocation 
  • Check cows have sufficient access to drinking water
  • Review grazing management, daily feed allocation and residuals

If 10-day averages of milk protein percentage drops or is lower than the previous year’s result:

  • Consider increasing energy intake through increasing supplementary feeding or pasture allocation 
  • Review grazing management, daily feed allocation and residuals

Check out chapter 11 of the InCalf Book for further suggestions (DairyNZ Ltd, 2017).

Monitor short returns

A cow has an oestrous cycle every 18-24 days (with only the odd exception having a true heat outside of this time period). We can therefore keep an eye on heat detection by monitoring the number of cows that have returned to heat between day one and 17 or day 24 onward, classing heats as missed or invented. In the first 17 days of mating, keeping an eye on the early indicator graph in MINDA Live reproduction is a good measure as to how heat detection is going, alerting you to how many short returns have occurred. 

Consider reviewing heat detection practices when short returns exceed 10%. After day 35 of mating the return interval analysis in MINDA Live will show the portion of returns that are short, normal and long. Industry target is to have fewer than 13% short returns.

Monitor submission rates

Three weeks (the length of one oestrous cycle) of mating is enough time for most of the cows within your herd to have cycled once. Therefore the industry target for the number of cows submitted in this time is 90%. In order to reach this target there will be roughly 4% of cows detected on heat and submitted daily.

MINDA Live is populated daily with submission rates and is something that you can monitor in the first three weeks to keep an eye on how you are tracking. Drops in the proportion of cows submitted daily, can indicate issues before it’s too late.

Monitor cow condition

A drop of more than 1 BCS (Body Condition Score) between calving and mating will likely impact submission and conception rates negatively.

Regular checks and staying on top of this will give your cows a better opportunity to get in calf. The target BCS for start of mating is 4.5 for 2-3 year olds and 4 for 4+ year olds.

Monitor natural mating bulls

The number of bulls required will depend on the number of cows likely to not be pregnant. Check out Dairy NZ guidelines to check that you have enough bull power. It is also important that you get these bulls on farm early so that they can adjust to the new surroundings and feed, reducing the risk of under performance during mating. It is also a good idea to split them into two mobs and rotate those teams so they get a rest and avoid fatigue, keeping them in optimum condition.

But most of all, stay safe!

Have a plan B

It’s all very well to monitor the above, but make sure there is a plan of attack if any issues have been indicated through one of the above measures.

Consider your options:

  • Preferentially manage a group of at risk cows
  • Attend a heat detection workshop
  • Extend mating with the use of short gestation semen to get some more cows in-calf without detriment to your calving pattern
  • Talk with your vet about the possibility of intervention – if that is the case, the earlier the better.


Burke, C., Williams, Y., Hofmann, L., Kay, J., Phyn, C., & Meier, S. (2010). Effects of an acute feed restriction at the onset of the seasonal breeding period on reproductive performance and milk production in pasture-grazed dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science93(3), 1116-1125. doi:10.3168/jds.2009-2562

DairyNZ Ltd. (2017). Body Condition and Nutrition. In The InCalf Book for New Zealand Dairy Farmers (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://www.dairynz.co.nz/media/5789084/the-incalf-book.pdf

Start early

Apply tail paint early and observe pre-mating heats to give yourself an opportunity to make a decision by understanding what proportion of cows are cycling before your mating start date. You can also use that period to ensure everyone is on the same page as far as identifying which cows are on heat.

Know the importance

Poor heat detection can be very costly to your farming business. The cost of a missed heat can be easily calculated with the following equation:

Repro equation

In addition to the financial cost, there is the belated cost of having a cow calving later than expected, leading to less time to recover and get in-calf early the following season.

Timing is everything

Cows are in a race against time and there is only a small window in which a cow can conceive. A cow comes on heat every 18-24 days for 6-24 hours, with ovulation occurring around 30 hours after the onset of heat. With the national average mating period being 10.8 weeks, this means that, at best, cows mated in the first 2 weeks of mating only get a maximum of 4 chances at getting in-calf. If they are missed or are not cycling by the end of 3 weeks, they might get only 1 or 2 opportunities.

Race against time

Know the odds

Mating a cow that is not on heat has a 0% chance of conception and mating a cow that is already pregnant has a 20-50% chance of disrupting the pregnancy (Sturman, Oltenacu, &Foote, 2000). It is crucial that a good process is in place for picking and drafting cows on heat.

Give them every chance

Although calving patterns are a big predictor of in-calf rates, there are some other things that you can do after calving to improve the chances of getting back in-calf. This includes keeping a close eye on cow health and body condition score and preferentially managing ‘at risk’ animals through once a day milking. Supplementary feeding and treatment will also put your cows in a better position to resume cycling, show strong signs of heat and get in-calf quickly. Studies have shown that cows on restricted feed or in energy deficit will show weaker or no signs of oestrous (Burke et al., 2010).

Have a strategy

Ensure that all farm staff are well informed of the process around mating. Cover off things such as:

  • What heat detection aids will be used?
  • How are the aids applied, interpreted and maintained?
  • What is the process when a cow is recognised as being on heat?
  • What is the process after a cow has been mated?
  • What is each person responsible for?
  • What happens if someone is unavailable (e.g. injury)?

Check out the latest stats

Results are finalised from the 2018 spring mating season and its great news. Nationally we have improved the 6 week in-calf rate by +0.9% and not-in-calf rate by -0.8% from the previous season, building on the gains already made between 2016 and 2017. Keep going at this rate and the 2019/20 season could be the best season on record! Check out our website for the full run down.

6 week in calf rate

Keep up those records

One of the main benefits of having national stats is bench marking. Bench marking gives you the ability to see where an individual farm or group of farms sits in relation to others in similar circumstances and enables accurate goal setting. These national statistics are comprised of data from the 4207 herds across the nation, with a level of recording high enough to obtain a detailed Fertility Focus Report. With this number of farms growing annually, we hope that the national statistics become increasingly reliable and that farmers see the increased benefits of having good records at their fingertips.

Know the measures: Not-in-calf rate

You will notice that officially published reproductive performance statistics will refer to ‘not in-calf rate’ as opposed to ‘empty rate’. This is because the not-in-calf rate is, essentially, everything minus the final in-calf rate making it comparable among farms and good to use for bench marking between years as well; whereas the empty rate can differ from farm to farm depending on who was diagnosed come pregnancy testing time. Nationally the rate of cows recorded empty was 11.8% of eligible cows, however the not-in-calf rate was 16.7%.  The not-in-calf rate includes cows with a doubtful pregnancy testing result, culled before receiving a pregnancy testing result, or missing both a pregnancy testing result and a record of culling. 

Not in calf rate

Consider the repercussions

While it’s fantastic that we’ve improved reproductive performance over the last few years, it’s important to remember that with improvement comes repercussions. More cows in-calf in the first 6 weeks and a lower not-in-calf rate means more calves on the ground earlier and more lactating cows needing to be fed too. Make sure you’re well-resourced to keep up with the energy demands of all these extra mouths and that you have a plan in place for accommodating surplus stock. 

Don't forget the update

2018 saw the update of the Fertility Focus Report to version 3.01. With this update came changes to some of the calculations, such as conception rate. With the national stats being calculated through the output of the DairyNZ Fertility Focus Report and its rules, previously published national stats are not comparable as they will have been the output of the previous 2.15 version. But don’t worry, we have run three seasons worth of data through the new version so that you’re getting the best bench marking data out there. DairyNZ will also be updating the dairy statistics publication to accommodate these updated results!

Think of going all AB

The stats are through on herds that used all-AB through mating compared to herds whom used a combination of AB and natural mating. All-AB herds had a 0.2% higher 6 week in-calf rate but a 1.1% higher not in-calf rate. These were driven by a 3.4% higher 3 week submission rate and a 1.5% lower conception rate for all-AB herds. However, when you account for the fact that conception rates can only be calculated for the AB period of mating, this lower conception rate of all-AB herds makes sense as the longer you get through the mating season, the lower the conception rates are. In other words, the more cows you can get pregnant in the first 4-6 weeks, the more efficient you will be in getting cows in-calf, regardless of using AB or Natural Mating bulls. And really the choice is yours when it comes to deciding to go all AB - national statistics say there’s not much in it.

Have the essentials ready

Prepare a calving kit in advance so you have an opportunity to go and source anything you’re missing. There is no time to be scrambling for essentials during calving! DairyNZ recommends preparing a bucket with:

  • Navel spray
  • Metabolics
  • Lube
  • Towel
  • Soap
  • Calf tags/identification
  • Gloves
  • Notebook and pencil/recording tool
  • Calving ropes
  • Spray paint/tail paint
  • Torch
  • Food/energy bars for staff
  • Calving intervention guide

Get your calf sheds ready

Upon calf collection you need to have calf sheds ready - preparing now can take some stress off. Without the presence of the mother and with low antibodies, the calf sheds need to be sheltered from extreme weather conditions as well as dry, disinfected and well ventilated to give calves the best start.

Colostrum is key

Colostrum is an essential part of the calf’s development and is vital in the first hours of life. Colostrum is rich with antibodies that provide the calf protection from illness in this time.

Get everyone up to speed

As it can get pretty crazy during calving, it is a good idea to take some time now to discuss the key responsibilities and processes around calving with staff. If you don’t have staff, consider hiring and training them up to give you a hand through this period.

Plan for rearing

Start thinking about your heifer rearing process. These animals are the future of your herd and need to be well grown to ensure they become productive in the herd. Farmers use different methods for growing heifers - be it on a run off, at the dairy farm or through a contractor. Either way, thinking about your process in advance will give you more time to make sure they’re under the responsibility of someone that is committed to reaching live weight targets and has good communication.

DairyNZ has some good points to consider when thinking about different rearing options.

Keep your records in order

Recording is the key to making informed decisions in the future, whether that be regarding herd improvement or otherwise. Make sure you have a process in place for recording during calving - you will need to record things such as:

  • Date
  • Fate
  • Dam
  • Sex
  • Calf identity number
  • Assisted or unassisted calving

The MINDA app is a great way to record on the go.

Know the physiological changes

During calving a cow’s immune function is compromised, teat canals open and unfavourable ground conditions are common which increases risk for mastitis rates.

At calving a cow’s pelvic tendons and ligaments relax for ease of calving however this can lead to less stability overall. In addition, a cow’s body condition loss after calving can reduce its foot’s ability to absorb shock and can lead to increased risk of lameness*.

Practice good stockmanship

Good stockmanship during this period can be all the difference. Not rushing stock on the tracks and practicing good hygiene at milking will help minimise risk of infections.

Know the trigger points

It’s important to recognise what a normal level of disease is around calving, so you can identify when to intervene. Look out for any of the following red flags*:

  • More than 5% of the herd require hands-on assistance to calve
  • More than 2% of the herd have retained foetal membranes 24 hours after calving
  • More than 5% of cows become lame in a month
  • More than 5% of the herd have clinical mastitis the month after calving
  • More than 5% of the herd suffer any other health problems at calving or during early lactation

Stay on top of body condition score (BCS)

BCS is a crucial factor in influencing the health of the transition cow, her milk production and reproductive success.

For this time of year it’s important to note that there are around 40 days in the dry period that a cow will not put on condition. For the first two weeks after drying off they will not gain due to the active immune response involved in drying off. They will also gain very little in the last month before calving due to the calf taking over a portion of the rumen capacity in the abdomen as well as the large energy demand the growing calf demands. Make sure this has been factored in when it comes to creating a strategy to reach condition score targets**.

Have a plan

The dry period is a great time to go over strategies with staff. For example, what happens if a cow becomes sick? What is the recording process? What will the different roles be at calving? Preparing your staff can ensure a successful transition period for your herd.

Record, so you can learn from it

Improvement year on year largely hinges on recording. By recording treatments in MINDA® you can analyse the portion of your herd with a health condition and also how it impacted in-calf rates and ultimately not-in-calf rates, allowing you to better identify what the issues are for your herd.



*DairyNZ(2017) Caring for the transition cow. Inside Dairy. June edition

**DairyNZ(2014) Feeding for condition score gain. Technical Series. Issue 21

Aim for BCS targets

Cows that reach calving body condition score (BCS) targets can produce more, begin cycling earlier after calving and therefore be more likely to fall pregnant toward the start of mating.

Body condition score targets at calving are as follows:

  • 2 & 3 year olds              5.5
  • 4 - 8 year olds               5
  • 9+ year olds                  5.5

Condition takes time

Cows will not gain BCS for one to two weeks after dry off due to the immune response involved in the drying off process. They also gain very little right before calving due to large energy demands of growing a calf. All up there are approximately 40 days during the dry period where cows are not gaining condition. This, along with BCS should be taken into account when deciding on dry off dates for your cows.

Don’t overshoot

When it comes to BCS, there is a sweet spot. Although we often refer to at risk cows as those that are under target, cows over target can also be at increased risk of metabolic disease. Make sure you keep monitoring your animals so they don’t end up too far on either side of the scale.

Have a feed plan

Take the guesswork out of feeding for BCS targets by making a feed plan around the type and quantity of feed depending on live weight.

The below table (retrieved from p52 DairyNZ Facts and Figures) shows the amount of feed (kg DM) required to be eaten for a 1.0 increase in body condition score across different feeds and breeds.

Dry Matter Table

Manage individual cows accordingly

Individual cows have individual needs. Separating dry cows into separate mobs based on BCS allows you to more accurately cater to their needs and use feed effectively.

Don’t forget the next generation

Young stock should represent some of the best genetics in your herd. Keep up good communication with your grazier to make sure they reach live weight targets. This will give them the best possible start and a chance to perform to their full potential both productively and reproductively. The below table displays live weight targets for different size cows at different ages (retrieved from p56 DairyNZ Facts and Figures).

Heifer liveweights

With over 4,000 herds across the country now recording enough data to produce detailed fertility focus reports, the latest version features some updated targets.

Get your hands on one

A Fertility Focus Report can be obtained through the MINDA® LIVE reproduction tab under ‘reports’. They can also be obtained through CRV Ambreed and Infovet.

Keep on top of recording to get a 'detailed' report

Depending on the level of data available there are three types of fertility focus reports that can be produced, this is displayed on the reverse side of the report.

A ‘basic’ report is generated when only low levels of information are available. Numbers are calculated from re-calving information and the 6-week in-calf rate is an estimate only.

An ‘intermediate’ report requires calving dates entered and AB information recorded for at least 50% of the cows. If there are fewer than 80% aged pregnancy test results recorded the report remains intermediate. In this report the 6 week in-calf rate is an estimate based on calving and mating information.

A ‘detailed report’ is most accurate and is the best report to use when comparing performance between seasons and farms as well as using to base herd management decisions. To obtain a detailed report at least 80% of the herd must have aged pregnancy results recorded and at least 80% of those results need to be early aged. Check out our when to scan calculator for more information on early aged pregnancy diagnosis.

Know the difference between not in-calf rate and empty rate

You will notice that the Fertility Focus Report displays the ‘not in-calf rate’ as opposed to ‘empty rate’ to measure reproductive performance. This is because it allows reports to be compared to other farms and to previous seasons. Empty rates can be subjective which is why the not in-calf rate is used. This figure is 100% minus your total in-calf rate, this means it includes culls, rechecks and animals that were not tested.

Understand how to follow the report

The Fertility Focus Report displays a lot of information on one page. Make sure you take the time to get acquainted and understand how to follow it through in a logical progression.

The first section gives an overview of the herd reproductive performance, looking at key reproductive measures. The second section shows how the key measures in the first section were obtained, displaying the drivers of the 6 week in-calf rate. The third section then looks at performance in some of the key farm management areas that impact reproductive performance so you can gain insights on what management areas (such as calving pattern, heat detection, young stock management or bull management) are positively or negatively impacting reproductive performance.

If you are having trouble following the Fertility Focus Report speak to a trained in-calf advisor or trusted rural professional, or download the Fertility Focus user’s guide.

Set goals

With the Fertility Focus Report allowing you to track the progression of reproductive performance over years and compare to targets, it makes it easy to set reasonable goals. The aim above targets and star rating system is based off actual farmer data. Top results and aim above targets are set at performance achieved by the top 25% of farmers.

Discuss it with a rural professional

The Fertility Focus Report is a great conversation starter, talk it through with you rural professional and together come up with an action plan that works towards your goals.

For more information or help with mating on your farm, contact your local rural professional.

Score regularly

BCS is not something that can be changed overnight. Therefore it’s crucial to score regularly so those not at target are quickly identified and action plans can be put in place before it’s too late! MINDA® allows you to record and keep track of body condition scores as well as see where they are in relation to the BCS target for the time of year.

Score accurately

Use a trained eye to ensure your scores are accurate. It won’t do anyone any good being generous with scoring when it comes to performance! There are plenty of materials available to get you up to speed with how to score. Alternatively you can use an accredited professional or do it with a neighbour to make sure it is fair scoring.

Use BCS to determine dry off

Together with expected calving dates, BCS should be used to determine when to dry off. Those further from target should dry off further from their calving date to ensure they reach calving body condition targets.

It’s important to note that there are approximately 40 days during a dry period that a cow does not gain BCS. A dry cow will not gain BCS for one to two weeks after drying off due to the active immune response involved in the drying off process, and will also gain very little body condition during the month before calving due to the large energy demand of the growing calf.

Run two mobs to ensure varying requirements are met

Different body conditions require different management. After you’ve scored the cows, draft out a lighter mob so you can cater specifically to their needs and ensure cows are getting the treatment they need to reach target. 

Preferentially feed animals below target

A key way to put condition on cows is to make sure you are giving them enough of the right type of feed. But remember, energy is only partitioned to BCS when maintenance, activity, pregnancy and milk production demands are already met.

Reduce milking of animals below target

Once a day milking allows the girls more energy to go toward maintaining or gaining body condition. Losses in milk production on a per day basis can be made back through extra days in milk in autumn.

With aged pregnancy results coming in, this edition of six tips will help you identify areas that might be holding back your repro performance.

Narrowing in on these factors will allow you to focus your attention where it’s needed the most – giving you the best chance to improve performance.

All of these can be done via MINDA® and will require good records. However, If you do not keep good records in MINDA®, these tips can be an opportunity for you to see what valuable insights can be gained from doing so.

Compare the in-calf rates (or not in-calf rates) between:

Late calvers and those that calved in the first six weeks of calving

If late calvers (those that calved after week 6 of calving) make up a considerable portion of the herd (aim for less than 13%) and are demonstrating lower performance, it’s likely the late calving group is holding back reproductive performance.

Look into your records to help understand why they’re getting in calf/calving late. You could also try some short term methods such as culling or the use of SGL to get back on track.

Animals that aren’t at target body condition score and animals that are

If those that aren’t at target make up a sizeable portion of the herd and have poorer performance, this will be a contributing factor to lowered reproductive performance.

To improve BCS, strategies such as preferential management, increased feeding, once a day milking or drying off early are all good options.

2 & 3 year olds should be 5.5 at calving, 4.5 at mating.
4+ year olds should be 5 at calving, 4 at mating.

Animals affected by health issues and animals that aren’t

If those affected are not performing as well as those that are then it’s likely cow health is a contributing factor to lowered reproductive performance. Take a look at what portion of the herd is affected by health problems to determine the urgency of the issue.

Talk to your vet to discuss precautionary measures and have a quick response to significant health issues that arise.

Different age groups within your herd

If there is a particular age group that is underperforming and represents a decent portion of the herd, look further into their records such as weights, BCS and health to determine why and take the necessary steps.

Different periods in time

Look at the in calf rates and see if there was a point in time where in calf rates dropped off. Consider timely events that could have caused this to happen. This could be anything from changing from AB to bulls to a change in weather or feed supply.

And finally, put it into action

Prioritise what area demands the most attention by looking at what portion of the herd falls into each problem category.

First set a goal (have fewer cows under BCS target), then create a plan and assign tasks to staff (preferential management for the suboptimal group with increased feeding, drying off early or once a day milking), and be sure to measure and track results (regularly scoring cows).

Get the most accurate BCS results for your cows

Get in touch to request a quote or find out more about Protrack BCS.

Get in touch

Get the most accurate BCS results for your cows

Get in touch to request a quote or find out more about Protrack BCS.

Get in touch